Unexplained Infertility: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Strategies

Alexander Kofinas
Unexplained Infertility: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Strategies

Unexplained infertility is a frustrating problem many couples face when trying to conceive. It’s a term used to describe a situation where the cause of infertility cannot be identified through standard fertility testing. Fertility testing is essential in determining the cause of infertility, and it involves assessing factors such as the uterus, menstrual cycle, luteinizing hormone, and vagina.

Women who experience unexplained fertility problems may undergo several tests to identify any underlying problems that could be causing the issue. Timing is critical when testing for infertility, as certain tests must be performed at specific points in a woman’s menstrual cycle to yield accurate results.

According to a study, unexplained infertility is a significant problem among couples trying to conceive. It can be frustrating for both patients and healthcare providers alike. The inability to pinpoint the exact cause of infertility can make developing an effective treatment plan challenging.

ivf, fertility, infertilityThere are several possible causes that healthcare providers will consider. Some potential causes include ovulation disorders or issues with sperm quality or quantity. Other possible factors include an age-related decline in fertility or lifestyle factors such as smoking or excessive alcohol consumption.

Despite these potential causes, many cases of unexplained infertility remain just that – unexplained. This can be incredibly frustrating for couples eager to start a family but unable to do so.

If you’re experiencing unexplained fertility problems, it’s important not to lose hope. There are still options available for those struggling with this issue. For example, some couples may explore alternative treatments such as acupuncture or herbal remedies.

Others may opt for more invasive procedures like intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF). These treatments can be costly and time-consuming but have helped many couples successfully conceive despite their struggles with unexplained infertility.

Every couple’s journey toward starting a family is unique. While unexplained infertility can be challenging to overcome, it’s important to remember that options are still available. With the right treatment plan and support from healthcare providers, many couples have successfully conceived and welcomed a new baby into their lives.

Possible factors contributing to unexplained infertility

Unexplained infertility can be frustrating for couples trying to conceive without success but with no apparent cause found. While there is no guaranteed way to prevent unexplained infertility, some possible factors may contribute to it. Identifying these factors can help couples make informed decisions about their lifestyle and medical options.

Age and genetics

Age is a significant factor in fertility, as women’s fertility declines with age due to the natural aging process of the ovaries. Women are born with a finite number of eggs that gradually decline in quantity and quality over time. By age 35, a woman’s chance of conceiving naturally decreases significantly, while her risk of miscarriage increases. By 40, her chance of conceiving naturally drops even further.

Genetics may also play a role in fertility. Some genetic conditions can affect reproductive health by causing hormonal imbalances or structural abnormalities in the reproductive system. For example, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common genetic condition that affects up to 10% of women worldwide and can cause irregular periods, high levels of male hormones (androgens), insulin resistance, weight gain, acne, and hair growth.

infertility lifestyleLifestyle and environmental factors

Lifestyle factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, poor diet, lack of exercise, stress, and exposure to toxins can also affect fertility by disrupting hormonal balance or damaging reproductive organs. Smoking has been linked to reduced ovarian function and increased risk of ectopic pregnancy (a potentially life-threatening condition where the fertilized egg implants outside the uterus). Alcohol consumption may reduce sperm count and motility in men and disrupt menstrual cycles in women. Drug use, especially cocaine, and marijuana, may impair sperm production and motility in men and ovulation and implantation in women.

Environmental factors such as pesticide exposure, chemicals, radiation, or pollution may also affect fertility by damaging DNA or disrupting hormonal balance. For example, exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical commonly found in plastics, can reduce sperm count and motility in men and increase the risk of miscarriage and birth defects in women.

Seeking medical advice and support

If you have been trying to conceive for at least a year without success, it is recommended that you seek medical advice from a fertility specialist. Your doctor may recommend various tests to evaluate your reproductive health, including blood tests to check hormone levels, ultrasound scans to examine the ovaries and uterus, semen analysis to assess sperm count and motility in men, or laparoscopy (a minimally invasive surgical procedure) to detect any structural abnormalities or endometriosis (a condition where tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside it).

Depending on the results of these tests, your doctor may recommend various treatments for unexplained infertility. These may include lifestyle changes such as weight loss or quitting smoking; medications such as clomiphene citrate (a fertility drug that stimulates ovulation) or letrozole (another fertility drug that reduces estrogen levels); intrauterine insemination (IUI), where sperm is placed directly into the uterus during ovulation; or in vitro fertilization (IVF), where eggs are retrieved from the ovaries and fertilized with sperm outside the body before being transferred back into the uterus.

Couples experiencing unexplained infertility may also benefit from seeking emotional support from counselors or support groups specializing in infertility issues. Infertility can be emotionally challenging for both partners due to its impact on their self-esteem, relationships, finances, and plans. Seeking support can help couples cope with the stress, anxiety, and depression associated with infertility and make informed decisions about their options.

Poor Egg and Sperm Quality in Unexplained Infertility

Sperm Quality and Male Infertility

The quality of sperm is crucial to a couple’s chances of conceiving. Poor sperm quality can lead to low sperm count or poor motility, which means that the sperm may not be able to swim correctly toward the egg. This can make it difficult for the sperm to fertilize the egg, resulting in infertility.

Several options for men struggling with infertility are available for improving their sperm quality. One option is to make lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and reducing alcohol intake. Another option is to take supplements or medications that can improve sperm production and motility.

However, in some cases, male infertility may be caused by genetic abnormalities or other underlying health conditions that require medical intervention. In these situations, couples may need to consider assisted reproductive technologies such as IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) or ICSI (Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection) to increase their chances of conception.

Poor Egg Quality and Female Infertility

embryo, ivf, microfertilizationWhile poor sperm quality is often associated with male infertility, poor egg quality is a common cause of female infertility. As women age, their eggs may become less viable due to hormonal imbalances or genetic abnormalities. This can make it more difficult for the egg to be fertilized by the sperm and result in pregnancy.

Doctors may perform diagnostic tests to assess egg quality, such as measuring antral follicle count and FSH levels. Antral follicles are tiny fluid-filled sacs containing immature eggs, while FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) levels indicate how well the ovaries function.

Women diagnosed with poor egg quality may benefit from fertility treatments such as IVF or donor eggs from a younger woman with a good ovarian reserve. However, couples must discuss their options with a qualified fertility specialist before pursuing treatment.

Cervical Mucus and Infertility

The cervix plays a crucial role in fertility, producing cervical mucus that helps sperm reach the egg. The consistency and quality of cervical mucus can affect a couple’s chances of conception. Abnormalities in mucus production or consistency can hinder conception by making it difficult for the sperm to swim through the cervix toward the egg.

If you struggle with infertility, your doctor may perform tests to assess your cervical mucus quality. Depending on the results, you may be prescribed medications or supplements to improve your cervical mucus production.

Fallopian Tubes and Ovaries

In addition to sperm and egg quality, fallopian tubes and ovaries also play critical roles in fertility. Blockages or damage to these organs can significantly reduce the chances of conception.

Several treatment options are available if you have been diagnosed with blocked fallopian tubes or other issues related to ovarian function. Surgery may sometimes be necessary to remove blockages or repair damaged tissue. In other cases, assisted reproductive technologies such as IVF may be recommended.

Diagnosis of Unexplained Infertility and Undiagnosed Underlying Conditions

person holding clear plastic cup with orange strawAn unexplained infertility diagnosis can be a frustrating and confusing experience for many couples. Despite thoroughly evaluating both partners, no apparent cause of infertility can be identified. However, it is essential to note that there may still be undiagnosed underlying conditions contributing to infertility.

Celiac disease is one such condition that has been linked to unexplained infertility. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder where the body’s immune system reacts abnormally to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye. This reaction damages the lining of the small intestine and prevents proper absorption of nutrients from food. Studies have shown that women with untreated celiac disease have a higher risk of infertility and miscarriage than those without celiac disease.

Therefore, patients with unexplained infertility may benefit from being tested for celiac disease. Blood tests can help identify antibodies associated with celiac disease, while an intestinal biopsy can confirm the diagnosis. A strict gluten-free diet may improve fertility outcomes if diagnosed with celiac disease.

Imaging tests such as hysterosalpingography (HSG) or sonohysterography (SHG) may also diagnose unexplained infertility. These tests involve injecting contrast dye into the uterus or fallopian tubes to help identify any abnormalities contributing to infertility. While these tests are generally considered safe, patients should discuss any potential risks or concerns with their healthcare provider before undergoing them.

Factors Affecting Therapy for Unexplained Infertility

Hormone Levels and Other Factors that Affect Therapy for Unexplained Infertility

Hormone levels have long been considered a critical factor affecting therapy for unexplained infertility. However, recent studies have shown that other factors aside from hormone levels can also impact the effectiveness of therapy for this condition. This has led to a growing interest in understanding the complex interplay of various factors, including hormones, in developing effective therapies for unexplained infertility.

One of the main reasons hormone levels are often considered a crucial factor in treating unexplained infertility is that hormones play a critical role in regulating the menstrual cycle and ovulation. Hormonal imbalances can lead to irregular cycles or anovulation, making conceiving difficult. Therefore, hormonal therapies such as Clomid or Letrozole are often prescribed to help regulate ovulation and improve fertility.

However, while hormonal therapies are sometimes effective, they do not work for everyone. Studies have found that only about 40% of women with unexplained infertility who undergo hormonal therapy will eventually conceive. This suggests that other factors aside from hormones may be at play.

One possible explanation is that there may be underlying issues with egg quality or sperm function that cannot be addressed by hormonal therapies alone. For example, even if ovulation is regulated through hormonal therapy, if there are abnormalities with the eggs or sperm themselves, fertilization may not occur.

Another factor that can impact the effectiveness of therapy for unexplained infertility is age. As women age, their ovarian reserve declines, and their chances of conceiving naturally decrease. While this decline is natural and inevitable, it does mean that older women may require more aggressive treatments such as IVF (in vitro fertilization) or ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection) to achieve pregnancy.

In addition to age-related factors and egg/sperm quality issues, lifestyle factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and obesity can also impact fertility. These factors can affect hormone levels and overall reproductive health, making conceiving more difficult.

Possibility of Pregnancy with Unexplained Infertility and Chance of Natural Conception

black and yellow plastic toySpontaneous Pregnancy Is Still Possible With Unexplained Infertility

The inability to conceive can be a frustrating and emotional experience for couples. When fertility tests come back without apparent cause, it can add confusion and uncertainty. However, even with unexplained infertility, spontaneous pregnancy is still possible.

Fertility Tests Can Help Determine Underlying Issues

While the cause of unexplained infertility may not be immediately apparent, fertility tests can help identify any underlying issues contributing to difficulty in conception. These tests may include blood work to check hormone levels, ultrasounds to examine the reproductive organs, or semen analysis for male partners.

Track Ovulation and Identify the Fertile Window

Even without a clear cause of infertility, tracking ovulation and identifying the fertile window is crucial for natural conception. The fertile window is typically around five days before ovulation and the day of ovulation itself. During this time, regular intercourse can increase the chances of pregnancy.

Likelihood of Pregnancy During Each Menstrual Cycle

It’s important to remember that even for those with unexplained infertility, pregnancy is still likely during each menstrual cycle. According to research, the chance of pregnancy during each cycle is around 20%. While this number may seem low, it’s important to remember that many couples conceive within six months to a year of trying.

Regular Intercourse During Fertile Window Increases Chances

To increase the chances of natural conception with unexplained infertility, regular intercourse during the fertile window is critical. This means having sex every two to three days leading up to ovulation and on the day itself. It’s important not to stress too much about timing or frequency, as this can add unnecessary pressure and anxiety.

Seeking Medical Advice May Improve Chances

If natural conception doesn’t occur after several months or if there are other concerns, such as irregular periods or pain during intercourse, seeking medical advice may be beneficial. Fertility treatments such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) may improve the chances of pregnancy.

IVF Pregnancy Success Rates and CCCT

Determining the success rate of IVF treatment can be a complex process. Many factors can affect the outcome, including age, health, and embryo quality. However, one test that can help predict IVF success rates is the Clomiphene Citrate Challenge Test (CCCT). This section will discuss how CCCT works and its impact on IVF pregnancy success rates.

Understanding CCCT

The CCCT is a blood test that measures a woman’s ovarian reserve. Ovarian reserve refers to the number of eggs a woman has in her ovaries at any time. The test involves taking clomiphene citrate for five days to stimulate the ovaries to produce follicles. On day three of the menstrual cycle, blood is drawn to measure follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and estradiol (E2).

If FSH levels are high or E2 levels are low, it may indicate reduced ovarian reserve. Women with lower ovarian reserves may have lower chances of successful IVF pregnancies as they may not produce enough eggs during an IVF cycle.

Impact on IVF Pregnancy Success Rates

Studies have shown that women with lower ovarian reserves have lower IVF pregnancy success rates than those with higher ovarian reserves. According to one study published in Human Reproduction Update, women aged 35-37 with normal FSH levels had a live birth rate per started cycle of 32%. However, women in the same age group with elevated FSH levels had a live birth rate of only 12% per started cycle.

Another study published in the Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics found that women under 35 who responded poorly to stimulation during their first IVF cycle had significantly lower chances of achieving pregnancy in subsequent cycles.

Improving Chances of Successful IVF Pregnancy

While low ovarian reserve can negatively impact IVF pregnancy success rates, there are ways to improve the chances of a successful pregnancy. One option is to use donor eggs from a younger woman with higher ovarian reserves. This can increase the chances of producing high-quality embryos and achieving a successful pregnancy.

It’s important to note that every individual situation is unique, and consulting with a fertility specialist is crucial in determining the best course of action. A fertility specialist can evaluate factors such as age, health, and ovarian reserve to develop an individualized treatment plan that maximizes the chances of a successful IVF pregnancy.

Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) for Unexplained Infertility

Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)

Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is a standard fertility treatment for couples with unexplained infertility. During IUI, a catheter is used to insert washed sperm directly into the uterus, while ultrasound is used to monitor the procedure. This procedure can be performed at a fertility clinic by a trained specialist. IUI aims to increase the number of sperm that reach the fallopian tubes and therefore increase the chance of fertilization.

Hystero Contrast Sonography (HCS)

Hystero contrast sonography (HCS) is another procedure that can be used as an infertility treatment for couples with unexplained infertility. HCS involves injecting saline with a contrast agent into the uterus to check for any abnormalities causing infertility. A trained specialist can also perform this procedure at a fertility clinic.

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

In vitro fertilization (IVF) is another option for couples struggling with unexplained infertility. During IVF, eggs are retrieved from the ovaries and fertilized in a laboratory setting before being transferred back into the uterus. This process increases the chances of successful fertilization and implantation.

Success Rates

ART procedures’ success rates vary depending on age, health status, and previous medical history. However, studies have shown that IVF has higher success rates than IUI or HCS alone for couples with unexplained infertility. It’s important to discuss your options with your healthcare provider and determine which treatment plan will work best for you.

Side Effects

Like any medical procedure, ART procedures have potential side effects such as cramping, bloating, and mood changes due to hormonal changes during treatment. Discussing these potential side effects with your healthcare provider before undergoing fertility treatments is essential.


ART procedures can also come at a high cost. Discussing the financial aspect of these treatments with your healthcare provider and insurance company before proceeding with any fertility treatments is essential.

Tips to Improve Your Chance of Pregnancy with Unexplained Infertility

Predict Ovulation: Use Ovulation Prediction Kits

One of the essential tips to improve your chance of pregnancy with unexplained infertility is determining the best time for conception. This can be done using ovulation prediction kits, available over-the-counter at most drugstores. These kits work by detecting a surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in your urine, which occurs about 12-36 hours before ovulation.

By tracking your LH levels with an ovulation prediction kit, you can pinpoint when you are most likely to ovulate and have sex during that period. Having sex during your fertile window increases your chances of pregnancy significantly. According to studies, couples who have sex every other day during their fertile window have a higher chance of getting pregnant than those who only have sex once or twice.

Increase Your Chances: Have Sex Every Other Day During Fertile Window

Having regular intercourse is crucial if you want to increase your chances of getting pregnant with unexplained infertility. As mentioned earlier, having sex every other day during your fertile window is one way to do this. However, it’s important not to put too much pressure on yourself and your partner.

Trying to conceive can be stressful, and stress can decrease fertility. So while it’s essential to have regular intercourse during your fertile window, it’s also important to relax and enjoy the process as much as possible.

Test Device Tip: Use Basal Body Temperature Test Device

Another tip for improving your chances of pregnancy with unexplained infertility is to use a basal body temperature test device. This device measures your basal body temperature (BBT), when you first wake up before any activity.

Your BBT rises slightly after ovulation due to increased progesterone levels. By tracking your BBT over several menstrual cycles, you can determine when you typically ovulate each month. This can help you time sex more effectively and increase your chances of pregnancy.

Consider Using Fertility-Friendly Lubricants

A fertility-friendly lubricant is essential if you’re trying to conceive with unexplained infertility. Some lubricants can decrease sperm motility and make it harder for the sperm to reach the egg. However, several lubricants on the market are specifically designed to be fertility-friendly.

These lubricants typically have a pH level and consistency similar to cervical mucus, which can help sperm move more quickly through the reproductive tract. Some popular fertility-friendly lubricants include Pre-Seed and Conceive Plus.

Try Acupuncture or Yoga

woman performing yogaStress can hurt fertility, so finding ways to reduce stress is essential if you’re trying to conceive with unexplained infertility. Acupuncture and yoga are two practices that reduce stress levels and improve fertility.

Acupuncture involves inserting thin needles into specific points on the body to stimulate energy flow. It has been shown to improve blood flow to the reproductive organs, regulate hormone levels, and reduce stress.

Yoga is another practice that has been shown to reduce stress levels and improve fertility. Certain yoga poses can help increase blood flow to the pelvic area, improving ovarian function and boosting fertility.

Consult with a Fertility Specialist

If you’ve been trying to conceive with unexplained infertility for over a year without success, it may be time to consult a fertility specialist. A specialist can perform tests such as semen analysis, hysterosalpingography (HSG), or laparoscopy to identify any underlying issues affecting your ability to get pregnant.

A fertility specialist may recommend advanced reproductive technologies such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF). These treatments involve fertilizing an egg outside the body and then transferring it back into the uterus to achieve pregnancy.

Outlook and Prognosis for Unexplained Infertility

Seeking a Second Opinion from a Fertility Specialist

A fertility specialist is an expert in reproductive health who can help diagnose and treat infertility. If you have been trying to conceive for more than 12 months without success, it may be time to seek the advice of a fertility specialist. A second opinion from a fertility specialist can provide valuable insight into your chances of conceiving with unexplained infertility.

While ovulation kits can help pinpoint the best time for intercourse, they may not improve the prognosis for unexplained infertility—ovulation kits work by detecting luteinizing hormone (LH) in urine, which surges just before ovulation. However, other factors may contribute to your infertility even if you are ovulating regularly. It’s important to remember that ovulation is just one piece of the puzzle regarding getting pregnant.

Ovarian Reserve Test and its Reliability

The ovarian reserve test is a blood test that measures the quantity and quality of eggs available for fertilization. While this test can provide insight into your reproductive potential, it may not be a reliable predictor of success in treating unexplained infertility. The test measures levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH). High levels of FSH or low levels of AMH may indicate decreased ovarian reserve, making it harder to conceive. However, even if your results are typical, underlying issues may still contribute to your infertility.

Mild Endometriosis and Its Impact on Fertility

Endometriosis is a condition where tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus, causing pain and discomfort. Mild endometriosis can impact fertility by affecting egg quality or blocking fallopian tubes. However, it may not be the sole cause of unexplained infertility and may not significantly affect the prognosis. Surgery to remove endometriosis can sometimes improve fertility outcomes, but weighing the risks and benefits before undergoing any procedure is crucial.

Luteal Phase Length and Its Impact on Fertility

The luteal phase is the time between ovulation and menstruation, typically around 14 days. A shorter luteal phase can impact fertility by making it harder for a fertilized egg to implant in the uterus. However, it may not be a definitive factor in determining the outlook for unexplained infertility. Many factors can contribute to fertility issues, and a short luteal phase is just one of them.

Understanding and Managing Unexplained Infertility

Expectant Management: A Common Approach for Unexplained Infertility

Couples who are struggling to conceive naturally may be diagnosed with unexplained infertility. This diagnosis can be frustrating and confusing, as there is no apparent reason why conception is not occurring. However, expectant management is a common approach for unexplained infertility, where couples are advised to continue trying to conceive naturally for up to two years before seeking further interventions.

During this time, couples need to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, reducing alcohol intake, and maintaining a healthy weight can improve the chances of conception. It is also recommended that couples have regular sexual intercourse during their fertile window, typically around day 14 of a 28-day menstrual cycle.

Sometimes, couples may use ovulation predictor kits or fertility tracking apps to help identify their fertile window more accurately. These tools can provide insight into when ovulation occurs and increase the likelihood of successful conception.

Management of Unexplained Infertility: Treatment Options

If expectant management does not result in successful conception after two years, it may be time to consider other treatment options. Couples should ask their healthcare provider about the different treatment options for unexplained infertility.

One option is fertility drugs such as Clomid or Letrozole. These medications work by stimulating ovulation and increasing the chances of successful conception. However, they come with risks, such as multiple pregnancies and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS).

Another option is intrauterine insemination (IUI), where sperm are inserted directly into the uterus during ovulation. IUI can increase the chances of successful conception but also comes with risks like infection and multiple pregnancies.

In vitro fertilization (IVF) may also be an option for couples with unexplained infertility. IVF involves fertilizing eggs outside the body and transferring them back into the uterus once they have developed into embryos. IVF has a higher success rate than other treatments but is more invasive and expensive.

Questions to Ask Your Healthcare Provider

Couples with unexplained infertility must ask their healthcare provider about available treatment options. This can help them make an informed decision about which treatment option is best for them.

Some questions to ask your healthcare provider may include:

  • What are the success rates of each treatment option?
  • What are the risks associated with each treatment option?
  • What is the cost of each treatment option?
  • How many cycles of each treatment option are recommended before moving on to another option?

By asking these questions, couples can better understand their options and make an informed decision that works best for them.

Conclusion: Understanding and Managing Unexplained Infertility

silhouette of person's hands forming heartIn conclusion, managing unexplained infertility can be challenging and frustrating for couples trying to conceive. However, success is possible with the right treatment plan and support from healthcare providers.

It’s important to remember that external validation does not define your worth as a person or couple. Managing unexplained infertility may require patience and persistence, but staying positive and focusing on the next steps toward achieving your goal of starting a family is essential.

Treatment options, such as IVF, are available, including assisted reproductive technology (ART). It’s essential to work closely with your healthcare provider to determine your best course of action.

Improving lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise can also increase your chances of success. Seeking emotional support through counseling or support groups can help manage the stress and emotional toll of infertility.